Ensemble effects on the reconstruction of attosecond pulses and photoemission time delays

Vismarra, F; Wu, Y; Mocci, D; Nisoli, M; Lucchini, M



Since the first demonstration of the generation of attosecond pulses (1 as = 10(-18) s) in the extreme-ultraviolet spectral region, several measurement techniques have been introduced, at the beginning for the temporal characterization of the pulses, and immediately after for the investigation of electronic and nuclear ultrafast dynamics in atoms, molecules and solids with unprecedented temporal resolution. The attosecond spectroscopic tools established in the last two decades, together with the development of sophisticated theoretical methods for the interpretation of the experimental outcomes, allowed to unravel and investigate physical processes never observed before, such as the delay in photoemission from atoms and solids, the motion of electrons in molecules after prompt ionization which precede any notable nuclear motion, the temporal evolution of the tunneling process in dielectrics, and many others. This review focused on applications of attosecond techniques to the investigation of ultrafast processes in atoms, molecules and solids. Thanks to the introduction and ongoing developments of new spectroscopic techniques, the attosecond science is rapidly moving towards the investigation, understanding and control of coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in increasingly complex systems, with ever more accurate and complete investigation techniques. Here we will review the most common techniques presenting the latest results in atoms, molecules and solids.